The primary support and structure of the body along with the body’s mineral composition is maintained by bones. Bones also house the bone marrow. Bone marrow is a soft, spongy, fatty tissue found in the center of our bones, and at the end of the spongy bones inside the body. The blood vessels and bone marrow fill cavities in the bones and store fat and stem cells required for the production of billions of white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), and platelets.
All components of blood have their specialized function, such as, white blood cells fight against infection, red blood cells carry oxygen to our body tissues, and platelets help to halt bleeding and blood clotting in the body. This blog will cover about the success rate of a bone marrow transplant in India and its life expectancy after a bone marrow transplant.
Bone marrow transplant, also known as stem cell transplant, or precisely hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Bone marrow can be damaged due to infection, or disease. Cancer like leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, and other conditions affect the bone marrow. The surefire treatment of bone marrow is transplantation. Bone marrow transplant (BMT) refers to a medical treatment that is carried out by highly trained medical professionals. It involves the replacement of a diseased marrow with a healthy one and the healthy cells can be used either from the recipient’s body or received from the donor. The damaged stem gets replaced and new stem cells grow.
The bone marrow failure due to damage or disease can significantly cause bleeding, bruising, fatigue, and malignancies like squamous cell carcinoma, and lymphoproliferative disorders. There are distinct types of bone marrow transplants depending on the donor. The types of bone marrow transplants are given below:
- Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant: The term auto refers to one’s self “own”. It is a type of BMT in which a person’s stem cell is used for the transplant. The donor is the patient itself. Before the radiation treatment or chemotherapy stem cells are taken from the patient by collecting peripheral blood stem cells or through bone marrow harvest which is later stored in the freezer. After therapy it is placed back into the patient’s body, restorating the body’s immune system and forming healthy and normal blood cells.
- Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant: The term Allo refers to “other”. It is a type of BMT that involves using the stem cell collected from the donor. Several tests are done to assure that the donor shares the same genetic type as the patient. A Donor could be related to the patient like parents, and siblings, or unrelated to the patient. Bone marrow registries keep records and help in finding unrelated donors for transplants.
Bone Marrow Transplant Success Rate In India remains unmatched to date. The success rate depends upon several factors like the patient’s condition and requirement, quality of hospitals, type of surgery and its complexity, and choice of highly qualified, and experienced Haemato-oncologist, which also depends on the overall health of the patient. The success rate of bone marrow transplantation is around 60 to 85%, the patients who underwent an allogeneic transplant for a non-malignant condition had a 70-90% success rate with a related match and 35-65% with an unrelated donor which is higher than other developed nations.
There are some factors mentioned below that can affect the success rate of bone marrow transplants.
- Surgical Expertise: To successfully perform surgery, the choice of a highly skilled and experienced haemato-oncologist along with the team is crucial.
- Donor-Recipient Compatibility: The most important factor is HLA matching for donors and recipients. If the match is successfully made with a related or unrelated donor then, the overall success rate of the transplant is evaluated.
- Age: The success rate of a bone marrow transplant also depends upon the age of the patient and donor. Although old age is no longer considered a barrier to receiving this treatment, people of younger age are more likely to survive and succeed in surgery. Age of the donor also matters, the cells from the younger donor with the age group of 20-35 lead to long-term survival for the patients after transplant.
- Pre-Existing Health Issues: Patients that already have already existing diseases like kidney, lung, liver damage, or any other disease may not be eligible for the transplant.
Indian medical centers are known for their quality service and treatment. The Best Bone Marrow Transplant Hospitals In India offer world-class treatment facilities and are equipped with advanced healthcare devices.
One of India’s best BMT specialists is Dr. Vikas Dua. He is highly skilled and has much expertise in his profession. He is the Principal Director of Paediatric Haemato-oncology & BMT at Fortis Hospital, Noida with 15 years of experience and is presently a senior consultant, Haematology and head pediatric hematology oncology at BMT at Fortis memorial center, Gurgaon. He along with his team has done a thousand-plus successful bone marrow transplants. He is well known for his excellent outcome in stem cell transplant in pediatric unrelated transplants.
Bone Marrow Transplant Cost In India is a more budget-friendly and affordable choice for bone marrow transplantation when compared with the US, Thailand, and European countries. India has state-to-art-facilities facilities and top specialists who are well-known across other countries for their knowledge and expertise. Furthermore, Patients seeking BMT have access to the greatest hospitals, which offer moderate healthcare packages, and premium medical tools, and include other accommodations like travel, lodging, and food costs into account. with the availability of the latest treatment and world-class healthcare facilities.
After a bone marrow transplant, there is a possibility of surviving for another 15 years after treatment as the chances of survival increase along with a better quality of life. Transplants for people with non-malignant disease have higher chances of survival with matched donors of the same genetic type such as brother or sister rather than unmatched or unrelated donors. After the transplant, a patient can live up to 5 years after hematopoietic cell transplantation without any symptoms of the original disease. However, a normal life expectancy is not achieved. “Still there is room for improvement and future efforts need to focus on that”. There are several factors of life expectancy depends:
> Type of transplant > Pre-transplant preparation
> Age of the patient > Overall health of the patient
> Health of the donor > Genetic type of the donor